Building a Harmonious Enterprise

High yield fertilization techniques and root rot prevention for peanuts

Release time:

2019-04-21 08:46

1、 The law of fertilizer requirement for peanuts:
1. Peanuts absorb less nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium from both ends, with more in the middle. Throughout the entire growth process, the absorption of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium is less in the seedling, full fruit, and mature stages, and more in the flowering, needle setting, and pod setting stages.
For every 100Kg of pod production, it is necessary to absorb 5-6 Kg of pure nitrogen (N), 1-1.5 Kg of pure phosphorus (P), 2-2.5 Kg of pure potassium (K), 1.5-3.5 Kg of calcium (CaO), and approximately 1 part of sulfur per 15 parts of nitrogen assimilation.
2. Most of the nitrogen absorbed by peanuts comes from the nitrogen fixation of rhizobia, accounting for about 70%. Increasing phosphorus and potassium fertilizer can promote the symbiotic nitrogen fixation of rhizobia.
3. Peanuts are more sensitive to medium and trace elements such as calcium, boron, molybdenum, and iron, and the effect of increasing yield by applying boron fertilizer during the peanut planting period is very obvious. Peanuts belong to the leguminous crop that likes calcium. Calcium can promote the synthesis of proteins and amides in the peanut body, reduce the rate of empty grains, and increase the plumpness of pods.
2、 Fertilization techniques for peanuts:
1. Fertilization principle: Organic fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer should be applied together. Reasonable combination of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and micronutrient fertilizers, sufficient basal fertilizer application, and appropriate topdressing.
2. Application of base fertilizer: Peanut base fertilizer is very important. Due to the weak nitrogen fixation ability of peanut rhizobia in the early stage and the fact that the fruit needles have already entered the soil in the middle and late stages, it is difficult to apply fertilizers. Adequate base fertilizers can meet the nutrient supply of peanut throughout its entire growth period, and peanut base fertilizers should account for more than 90% of the total fertilizer.
Mainly using organic fertilizers combined with nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other fertilizers. The specific application method varies depending on the type and quantity of fertilization. Three party recommended formula for application per mu:
High yield plan 1: peanut specific fertilizer (15-11-16S, 16-10-18S, 14-16-12S, 15-8-17S) 40Kg+composite microbial fertilizer (15-10-15 beneficial live bacteria ≥ 100 million/g, 13-4-8 beneficial live bacteria ≥ 100 million/g) 40Kg+decomposed manure 2000Kg.
Middle class plan 2: peanut specific fertilizer (15-11-16S, 16-10-18S, 14-16-12S, 15-8-17S) 40-50Kg+organic inorganic compound fertilizer (15-5-10) 40Kg+decomposed manure 2000Kg.
3. Topdressing during the flowering period: Peanuts require more fertilizer during the flowering period. Insufficient nutrients during this period can cause poor plant development, and timely fertilization should be applied. Generally, 10kg of potassium sulfate compound fertilizer and 10-20kg of lime powder are applied per mu. Encourage peanuts to bloom more, needle more, and bear more.
If sufficient basic fertilizer is applied to the mulched cultivation plot, there is no need for topdressing. To avoid causing plant overgrowth, premature closure, field canopy closure, and inability of fruit needles to penetrate the soil, reducing the rate of fruiting.
To control topdressing, spraying paclobutrazol can be used to inhibit nutrient growth, promote reproductive growth, and increase yield. Generally, 35 grams of 15% paclobutrazol are mixed with 50Kg of water per acre for spraying. It is prohibited to spray growth regulators containing di-tetranitrophenol.
3、 Causes, symptoms, and prevention of peanut root rot disease
1. Symptoms of peanut root rot: Suffering from damage during the seedling stage leads to root rot and seedling withering; Affected plants during the adult stage can cause root rot, stem base rot, and pod rot, resulting in stunted aboveground growth, poor growth, and yellowing of leaves, ultimately leading to withering of the entire plant. Due to the fact that the main site of this disease is the root and vascular bundle, the root of the diseased plant turns brown and rots, the vascular bundle turns brown, and the main root shrinks and rots, resembling a mouse tail. There is a yellow white to light red mold layer on the surface of the affected area.
2. Pathogenesis pattern: Bacteria mainly overwinter in the soil with diseased residues and become the main primary source of infection of the disease. Fungal carrying seeds, pods, and soil mixed with diseased residues can also become the primary source of infection of the disease. Germs are mainly transmitted through flowing water, fertilization, or agricultural operations. The primary inoculum is mainly chlamydospores, while the secondary inoculum is large and small conidia, which can directly invade the host wound or epidermis and propagate within the vascular bundle. Usually, adverse weather conditions such as continuous planting, low-lying terrain, shallow soil layer, continuous low temperature, overcast rain, heavy rain, sudden clearing, or low rain and drought are more severe.
3. Prevention and control methods: Comprehensive prevention and control measures should be taken, mainly through cultivation and disease prevention, supplemented by chemical control.
① Control the quality of seeds: do a good job in collecting, selecting, drying, and storing seeds; Before sowing, turn over and sun the seeds, remove the discolored, mildewed and damaged seeds, and mix the seeds with 40% triadimefon, germicidal pesticide Menshen, carbendazim wettable powder and new high fat film with 0.3% of the seed weight, and sow after 24 hours of sealing.
② Reasonable rotation: Determine rotation methods, crop combinations, and rotation years according to local conditions.
③ Grasp the cultivation management centered on fertilizer and water: renovate the drainage and irrigation system, improve the waterlogging and drought resistance ability of the planting area, and timely clear ditches, drain water and reduce humidity after rain; Increase fertilizer to improve soil, pay attention to applying fully decomposed soil and miscellaneous fertilizers.
④ Once diseased plants are found, they should be promptly removed from the peanut plot and sprayed with a mixture of special fungicides and foliar fertilizer at the root or stem base. In combination with the control of peanut leaf spot disease and peanut scab, 30% propiconazole · difenoconazole 20ml or 50% chlorobromoisocyanuric acid 40g or 60% pyrazolyl fungicide · Daisenlian water dispersible granule 16g+Zhonglian chemical medicine fertilizer mixture granulbao 50ml mixed with water 30-50kg spray every 10-15 days for 2 to 3 consecutive times, and spray foot thoroughly.