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Causes and prevention measures of peanut shell hollowing

Release time:

2019-09-19 13:38

1. The main difference in varieties is that the large peanut series is prone to the problem of empty shells, while the small peanut pearl series is rare.
The main regions of occurrence and soil characteristics include Jiangxi, Hubei, Jiangsu, Shandong, and a small part of Henan and Hebei; There are acidic or slightly acidic soils such as laterite and yellow brown soil, which generally contain low levels of active calcium.
The current yield level of large peanuts per mu has generally increased from less than 200 kilograms to over 300 kilograms. The problem of empty shells, which rarely occurs at low production levels, is becoming increasingly prominent under high-yield conditions.
The current situation of fertilization is to pursue yield, and most peanut planting areas apply too much nitrogen fertilizer, which is not conducive to root nodule nitrogen fixation and forms excessive overgrowth of aboveground stems and leaves; Little distribution of organic fertilizers; Most of the varieties of phosphate fertilizer used today have changed from the previous superphosphate to ammonium phosphate and ternary high concentration compound fertilizers. This is very detrimental to the supplementation of trace elements and nutrient balance in peanut fields.
2. Calcium deficiency in pods can lead to empty shells in peanuts
Peanuts are calcium loving crops, requiring around 2.7 kilograms of calcium for every 100 kilograms of pods produced. Especially for pod development, calcium is needed to enrich the kernels in order to improve fullness. However, peanuts are crops with limited calcium absorption capacity, and the growth of their aboveground stems and leaves in the early stage relies on the absorption of young, unthawed root tips. Due to the weak transport capacity of calcium in the phloem, the large amount of calcium required by the underground pods after the flowering and needle stage cannot be utilized by the calcium absorbed by the root system. Instead, it mainly relies on the fruit needles and young fruits themselves to absorb calcium from the soil.
Numerous studies at home and abroad have found that during the podding stage after fruit needles are inserted, even if the underlying soil where the roots are located does not lack calcium, the calcium absorbed by the roots is difficult to transport into the pods. More than 90% of the calcium in the formation of peanut pods is directly absorbed from the surrounding soil by the fruit needles and young fruits. This means that during the more than 70 days from the penetration of the fruit needle into the soil to the fullness of the kernels, if there is a serious calcium deficiency or insufficient calcium supply in the soil layer of the pods, it will directly affect the formation of the pods. In light cases, the rate of kernel production will decrease, leading to a decrease in yield, and in severe cases, it will lead to the problem of empty shells in peanuts and a failure to harvest. As farmers from various regions have repeatedly called, although the aboveground stems and leaves of peanuts are still lush, the harvested pods are often not full or even empty.
Research has shown that there are differences in the strength and ability of calcium absorption in different parts of pods: 15.5% for the needle inserted into the soil, 59.5% for the young fruit skin, 7.5% for the young fruit kernel, and 1.5% for the newly formed fruit kernel. It can be seen that the calcium absorption strength of the fruit kernel is the lowest. Moreover, their calcium absorption ability gradually decreases with the development of pods. This makes it easier for peanuts to experience calcium deficiency in the later stages of podding, resulting in empty and blighted fruits.
What are the measures to prevent peanut shells from becoming empty?
1. Increase the application of organic fertilizers. Due to the comprehensive nutrition of organic fertilizers, generally 3000 to 4000 kilograms of decomposed organic fertilizer are applied per acre as base fertilizer. A large amount of base fertilizer can be used for full tillage application; The quantity is relatively small and can be used as seed fertilizer.
2. Apply superphosphate. Because superphosphate not only contains phosphorus, but also contains a large amount of gypsum, also known as calcium sulfate, it can increase calcium fertilizer for the soil. Generally, 30 to 40 kilograms of superphosphate are applied per acre as base fertilizer.
3. Spray boron fertilizer. Boron is a necessary nutrient for the normal development of plant floral and reproductive organs. Sandy soil and severely boron deficient soil can be treated with 1 kilogram of borax per acre as base fertilizer or seed fertilizer. Generally, soil can be topdressing with 0.2% -0.3% borax solution 2-3 times during the initial flowering period.
Spray molybdenum fertilizer. Molybdenum fertilizer can promote the development of peanut nodules, dark green leaves, strong growth, and plump fruits. Apply 0.3% -0.5% ammonium molybdate solution as root dressing per acre during the initial flowering or lower needle setting stages.
Deeply apply potassium fertilizer. Potassium fertilizer should be applied deep below the fruit layer to prevent excessive potassium content in the fruit layer, which affects the absorption of calcium and increases rotten fruit.
4. Choosing high-quality fertilizers, such as peanut specific fertilizers (14-16-12, 15-8-17, etc.) combined with microbial agents 15-10-15/13-4-8, etc. (effective live bacteria ≥ 50 million/gram organic matter ≥ 15%), can balance soil acidity and alkalinity, increase soil organic matter, improve soil rhizosphere microbial community structure, reduce calcium fertilizer loss, and increase calcium fertilizer activity.
5. If the growth of peanut seedlings is weak and the leaf color is light, 0.3% urea and 0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution can be added every 7-10 days. Continuous spraying 2-3 times can reduce the peanut shell rate, improve the seed setting rate, and generally increase yield by more than 10%.